The term ‘Limey’ had its heyday during the early 20th century where it was used as a shorthand reference for English emigrants arriving in America, South Africa and Australia. Its roots come from the British navy’s use of lime juice to cure scurvy during the late 19th century.Scurvy has the dubious honor of being one of the oldest recorded nutritional deficiencies in human history.Mostly thought of today as a strictly seafaring issue, it is found throughout history both at sea and on land in places where malnutrition is high and fresh food is in low supply.Representation of patient with scurvy. Photo by Wellcome Collection CC By 4.0The cure for scurvy has a long history of missteps and well-meaning but misguided hypotheses; we understand now that scurvy occurs due to depleted levels of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in the body and that scurvy is prevented by daily doses of ascorbic acid from citrus or other sources.The 16th century was a time of great upheaval and invention; the great empires of the west began to unfold across the globe and with this expansion came greater lengths of time spent at sea, with scurvy being documented as only being cured by citrus fruits.Lime juice for the treatment of scurvy, issued to soldiers on the British Front in Iraq. Photograph, 1914/1918. Photo by Wellcome Collection CC By 4.0There is evidence for the use of citrus fruits and herbs in the treatment of scurvy from many different parts of the globe. The East India Company reportedly used lemon juice almost its entire existence, but it wasn’t until the 18th century that medical physicians in the United Kingdom began to take note.18 Old English insults we need to bring backDr. James Lind (1716-1794) was a Scottish physician who is credited with completing one of the first controlled therapeutic experiments which he did on sailors who were struck with scurvy. Of his twelve subjects, the ones given daily citrus fruits made a full recovery.James Lind, a pioneer in the field of scurvy prevention.More setbacks followed, and it would take another four decades and many deaths at sea — the death tolls from scurvy far outstripping the deaths from combat — before the Royal Navy began to take citrus seriously.As the Encyclopaedia Britannica reports, “When it was finally adopted by the Royal Navy in 1795, scurvy disappeared from the ranks ‘as if by magic’ and it became a daily supplement to all naval fleets.”James Lind, A Treatise on the Scurvy, 1757. Photo by Wellcome Collection CC By 4.0By 1860, much of the world was a colony of another place, and each great power had their own fleet. The admiralty of the British navy oversaw the switch from European lemons to the more expensive West Indian limes because they were being farmed on British plantations and were assumed to be more effective at beating scurvy. It was this decision that gave birth to the term “Limey” and is generally agreed to have been a mistake of ignorance and patriotism.We now know that limes have around 40% less ascorbic acid than lemons and that vitamin C loses its potency over time. The lime juice supplied to the British Navy was often left exposed to fresh air, and when combined with the copper vessels used in the bottling process, it had almost no vitamin C left to speak of by the time it was taken on board.Vitamin C was identified as the main curative factor in scurvy in 1932.Luckily for the British, the time spent travelling at sea had been reduced due to the introduction of steam power, so the mistake went unnoticed until the dawn of polar exploration.Read another story from us: Guinness Brewery Signed a Lease for 9,000 YearsUnluckily for those early polar explorers, the lack of vitamin C in the lime juice lead to a resurgence of scurvy and a new wave of misunderstanding about its causes. It wasn’t until 1932 that vitamin C was categorically identified as the main curative factor in scurvy.These days, science has shown that a diet of fresh food is enough to combat scurvy and the term “Limey” has fallen out of fashion, along with the naval preference for lime juice.
One person’s trash is another person’s archaeological treasure. That’s long been the case, but it’s taken in a new direction by the recent analysis of an Egyptian stripy sock that was found in what was at the time a rubbish dump in Antinooupolis in Roman-era Egypt. British Museum scientists developed a special imaging to help them discover how Egyptians used dyes on a child’s sock, radiocarbon dated to about 300 A.D. Not wanting to destroy the sock with invasive scanning, they “utilized multispectral imaging, which only needs to scan the surface of artifacts to test for pigments.”The researchers believe the sock was made for the left foot of a child, showing separation between the big toe and four other toes. It used different colors of wool yarn.Photo by Plos OneMany Egyptian socks found have a similar style: made of wool, bright color, with a section between the first two digits in order to wear with sandals.According to the Smithsonian, the sock was “Fished out of a landfill during the 1913-1914 excavation of the Egyptian city of Antinooupolis led by English papyrologist John de Monins Johnson on behalf the Egypt Exploration Fund.”No one analyzed the sock until recently.Socks have existed since the Stone Age, but the ancient Egyptians are thought to be responsible for the first knitted socks.Photo by Plos OneThe recovered child’s sock was described in the journal PLOS One: “Each toe is made separately from dark green wool (10 rows). The two toes are then joined and worked in bands of the following colours: orange (4 rows), purple (4 rows), bluish-green (4 rows), dark red (6 rows), green (2 rows).”“A welt across the instep marks where the loops are worked in the round. The top edge is continuous and curls over; a loose thread of red wool forms part of a tie or tassel at the center front.”The sock was one of four ancient textiles examined, each selected from the British Museum “for their historical/archaeological importance.” Besides the stripy sock were fragments of textiles from Wadi Sarga. These objects are all held at the museum’s Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan.The earliest known surviving pair of socks, created by naalbinding. Dating from 300 AD to 500 AD, these were excavated from Oxyrhynchus on the Nile in Egypt. The split toes were designed for use with sandals. On display in the Victoria and Albert museum, reference 2085&A-1900. Photo by David Jackson CC BY-SA 2.0 ukDr. Joanne Dyer, a scientist in the museum’s department of scientific research who developed the approach, told The Guardian: “It was exciting to find that the different coloured stripes found on the child’s sock were created using a combination of just three natural dyes.”The imaging process is a cheaper, less time-consuming, and less destructive way of studying ancient textiles, she explained in the interview. “Previously, you would have to take a small piece of the material, from different areas.And this sock is from 300 AD. It’s tiny, it’s fragile, and you would have to physically destroy part of this object. Whereas with both the [multispectral] imaging, and other techniques, you have a very good preliminary indication of what these could be.”12th century cotton sock, found in Egypt.The 3rd century AD was a time of tumultuous change in Egypt. Roman influence had peaked.Ongoing economic change was seen in the growth of agriculture and the increasing concentration of wealth and culture in cities, not only Alexandria but also Antinoopolis in the Nile valley.Christianity was spreading, in an interesting form. “Christian hermits in the Egyptian desert began a new style of communal living, later known as monasticism,” according to the Met Museum.Read another story from us: Mt Vesuvius Explosion in 79 AD: Exploding Skulls and Boiling Blood“The earliest monastic communities are made up of hermits who spend most of their time in solitude. Communities of monks who live and work together are formed early in the 4th century. Pachomius writes the first rules for monastic life in about 321 A.D.”Whether the first monks wore stripy socks, though, is unrecorded.
History books are not always right, but it’s a shock to many familiar with the destruction of the Roman city of Pompeii that the commonly accepted date of Mount Vesuvius’s volcanic eruption is most likely off by two months. An inscription has been uncovered during new excavations that dates it to mid-October in 79 AD, not August 23rd.Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 1880 at night. Lithograph, published in 1883.Culture Minister Alberto Bonisoli made the announcement on October 15, 2018 in Pompeii, and declared it “an extraordinary discovery.” He said the discovery was important for science, history, and art — and for highlighting Italian expertise.A charcoal inscription made in a house being renovated in ancient times apparently re-dated the eruption of Mount Vesuvius.Statue of Pliny the Elder on the facade of Cathedral of S. Maria Maggiore in Como. Photo by Wolfgang Sauber CC BY-SA 3.0Historians used ancient writings that purported to share first-hand accounts of the volcano to come up with the original date.The writings came from Pliny the Younger, a lawyer and author who wrote about the death of his more famous uncle, Pliny the Elder.Roman painting from Pompeii, early 1st century AD, most likely depicting Cleopatra VII, wearing her royal diadem, consuming poison in an act of suicide, while Caesarion, also wearing a royal diadem, stands behind her.“On the 24th of August, about one in the afternoon, my mother desired him to observe a cloud…” he wrote in a letter to Tacitus, a Roman historian, about the events.According to the BBC, Pliny the Elder “was then a fleet commander at Misenum – modern day Miseno – across the bay from Pompeii. He took a ship to stage a rescue for those in danger from the volcano.” The older man did not return.Detail of Alexander Mosaic, showing Battle of Issus, from the House of the Faun, Pompeii. Photo by Magrippa cc by sa 3.0Pliny the Younger wrote in his letter, “I have faithfully related to you what I was either an eye-witness of myself or received immediately after the accident happened, and before there was time to vary the truth.”But now historians aren’t so sure. Perhaps Pliny the Younger’s correspondence was incorrectly translated from Latin, or in some way misunderstood.The theater, restored by Pliny the Younger. Photo by QuartierLatin1968 CC BY-SA 3.0The archaeologists released a statement about the new findings: “In particular, a charcoal inscription, a tangible trace of everyday life, supports the theory that the date of the eruption was October and not August. The inscription appears in a room of the house which was undergoing refurbishment, while the rest of the rooms had already been completed. Work must therefore have been ongoing at the time of the eruption.”They also pointed out that since the scribbling was made “in fragile and evanescent charcoal, which could not have been able to last long, it is highly probable that it can be dated to the October of AD 79, and more precisely to a week prior to the great catastrophe.”Bases for a roman stone hand mill (mola asinaria) of a bakery at Ruins of Pompeii.Interestingly, there had already been a challenge to the August date, based on climate and crops. A team of scientists led by Giuseppe Rolandi, a professor of Earth sciences at the University of Naples, wrote in a paper published in the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research in January 2008 that the wind patterns dispersing volcanic debris only occurred in the autumn.Also crops that were harvested in the autumn months like grapes and pomegranates were available at the time that Vesuvius exploded.Pompeii, Italy.The explosion of Mount Vesuvius is the subject of other, recently revealed research.A new study suggests that Mount Vesuvius’s explosion inflicted horrible deaths on its human victims: the heat was so extreme that victims’ skulls exploded, their blood boiled, and their flesh and brains were replaced with ash.Scientists now say that Mount Vesuvius erupted in Italy with a thermal energy 100,000 times more powerful than the atomic bombs of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.Read another story from us: Mt Vesuvius Explosion in 79 AD: Exploding Skulls and Boiling BloodThis conclusion was reached after archaeologists at the Federico II University Hospital in Italy conducted a study of bones recovered from some ash-filled waterfront chambers in Herculaneum, a city close to the volcano, and discovered a strange red and black mineral residue on the bones, including inside skulls, and permeating the ash around and inside the skeletons.
Bikinis and shorts are quite distinguishable today as the swimsuits intended for female and male users, respectively. However, during the “Roaring Twenties”, it was very hard to tell the two apart. The design was kind of unisex, with both men and women wearing full-body swimsuits, as moral norms were stricter than today. While it might seem odd from a modern perspective, swimsuits have come a long way from bathing gowns of the 18th and 19th century, which made sure that not a single segment of a lady’s skin was visible to the observer. To be fair, the gowns also had another function ― to keep the lady safe from sunburns, but this too was considered part of the norm, as tanned skin wasn’t really desirable among aristocrats of the time.11 women and a little girl lined up for bathing beauty contest, USABeatrice Kyle next to a fire engine eating a pickle, 1924Bill Norton the bathing beach policeman measuring distance between knee and bathing suit on woman, Washington, D.C.High diver Beatrice Kyle sitting on a fire engine wheel between acts at the Society Circus at Fort Myer, Va. for the benefit of the Army Relief Fund; Apr. 25, 1924Ernest and Pauline Hemingway, San Sebastian, circa September 1927.Women dancing on beach, Toronto, Canada1920s swimsuit postcard .The reason behind the designs that seem so impractical today, was that going to the beach wasn’t mostly about swimming, as much as it was about enjoying the fresh air and socializing.Therefore, the swimsuits were made of wool ― a material that would keep you warm but became very heavy once wet. With that in mind, the change actually came when swimming became a popular pastime among men and women alike. Soon the material became lighter and more suitable for water.Featuring a simple design, most women and men wore their one-piece swimsuits, which covered their torso, leaving their legs and arms exposed. The main difference was that while men’s models featured shorts, the women’s included a dress which covered the underwear.Bathing Suit 1920s.Bathing Beach, 1920While men stuck with a simple design, a number of accessories were included for ladies, such as a swimming cap, and beach footwear.As times changed, so did the bathing suits. By the mid-1920s, Vogue had famously proclaimed that:… the newest thing for the sea is a jersey bathing suit as near a maillot as the unwritten law will permit.Argentine swimmer Alberto Zorrilla in 1925.1920s swimsuitViola Swinnerton & Anna NeibelBeach PhotoRudolph Valentino with Aleta Farnum and Gertrude Selby. Motion Picture, January 1921Bathing models in a museum, 1920. Photo by Alraunenstern – CC BY SA 4.0Beach 1920Woman on a beach in Bermuda with seaweed, 1929Human tower on the sands at South Stradbroke Island, 1922But it wasn’t only the unwritten law that dictated the fashion ― at the time, beaches were patrolled by the so-called “swimsuit police” whose task was to measure the length of women’s bathing suits and to determine whether or not were they dressed in “improper attire”.Apart from an obligatory 10 dollar fine, some women who chose to argue with the officers were arrested and brought to court.Read another story from us: Flappers: subverting society with their shoesHowever, the public soon turned against this controversial law enforcement, and by the 1930s, the swimsuit police were no more.
Are there still human remains inside the Titanic? The question lingers on. When the RMS Titanic sank on April 14, 1912, after hitting an iceberg on her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City, 1,500 lives were lost. About 334 of the drowned were recovered in the days following the tragedy, but a great many corpses were never found. While the assumption is that decades in the ocean would have led to total disintegration, the discovery of the wreck of the Titanic in 1985 also prompted a debate over whether there could be human remains embedded in the wreckage, two and a half miles below the surface of the Atlantic.Photos were taken during submarine explorations of the site, and the release of some of those photos suggest that corpses were indeed dragged to the ocean floor. One photo was taken in 2004 and released in 2012, when the 100-year anniversary of the Titanic tragedy was marked. The image showed a crumpled large coat with a boot protruding from beneath its seam.Officials say human remains may be at Titanic shipwreck site http://t.co/JZSjdCpS— Fox News (@FoxNews) April 15, 2012AdChoices广告inRead invented by Teads“The way that the clothes are arranged, makes it look like someone’s final resting place,” Kristina Killgrove, a biological anthropologist at the University of North Carolina, told Discovery News. These images were taken during an expedition by the National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration (NOAA) and explorer Robert Ballard, who discovered the wreck of the Titanic in 1985.“These are not shoes that fell out neatly from somebody’s bag right next to each other,” James Delagado, the director of maritime heritage at the National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration, told The Associated Press in 2012. The way they are “laid out” makes a “compelling case” that it is where “someone has come to rest,” he said.Evidence of human remains on the Titanic, over 100 years later. pic.twitter.com/QrYLUfd9RE— Terrifying (@terrifyingposts) March 30, 2014It was Ballard who discovered that the ship broke into two sections, almost a half mile apart. In between the two sections was a debris field, and Ballard and his men took photos of not only items from the ship but also many pairs of shoes. Later analysis suggested that the shoes were once attached to the decomposed remains of Titanic victims.Robert Ballard giving a talk on his Titanic discovery. Photo by Erik Charlton CC by 2.0James Cameron, who directed the hit film Titanic and has performed extensive research, disagrees that there are bodies on the ocean floor. Cameron has visited the wreck 33 times and said he has seen “zero human remains” during his explorations.“We’ve seen shoes. We’ve seen pairs of shoes, which would strongly suggest there was a body there at one point. But we’ve never seen any human remains,” said Cameron.The bow of the wrecked RMS Titanic, photographed in June 2004Some scientists said that at the depth, even bones would turn to sediment and dissolve. The shoes that have been found were once worn by people, certainly, but those bodies are no more. However, a theory exists that deep within the wreck, within closed cabins, identifiable human remains could be found because of the cold, pressurized environment.Such questions were raised again recently because a number of high-priced trips have been booked for the summer of 2019 to give people a chance to see the site of the sunken Titanic, 13,000 feet down. OceanGate is one company with trips booked for a 10-day-long Titanic exploration costing more than $100,000 per person. The OceanGate journey takes people out to the location of the wreck, and then, in small groups, on a 90-minute submarine descent to the Titanic, for about three hours of up-close examination of the wreck.Dana Hall, marketing manager of OceanGate, told The Vintage News in an earlier interview, “We are scheduled to depart from St. John’s, Newfoundland, for the first manned expedition to the site of the RMS Titanic since 2005. Fewer people have seen the legendary vessel since it sank in 1912 than have gone to space. Over the course of six missions running June through August a limited number of citizen explorers, known as mission specialists, will be among the first in nearly 15 years to descend 3,800 meters below the surface of the North Atlantic, in the world’s only 5-person submersible capable of reaching Titanic depths, to directly observe the maritime heritage site.”However some recent setbacks have put these trips on temporary hold.Related Article: The Titanic Wreck was Discovered While Looking for Lost Nuclear SubmarinesNo one has so far reported seeing evidence of a human victim in wrecks thanks to one of these trips. Between 1987 and 2004, seven research and discovery expeditions recovered over 5,500 non-organic artifacts from the Titanic site, including a bracelet, gloves, a napkin, a pocketwatch, binoculars, keys, a chandelier, and even menus.
It’s a best case scenario for baseball, with a Game 7 tonight in Cleveland. People are killing Joe Maddon this morning for going to Aroldis Chapman last night while leading 7-2, and leaving him in the game until the 9th. Colin agrees with Maddon for going with Chapman to secure the win and guarantee a Game 7. When the season is on the line, you empty the bag to get to a Game 7. Managers that worry about pitching rotations and rest, with the season on the line, are sitting at home like Dusty Baker.“Bringing Aroldis Chapman in, in the 7th inning, there is no argument. That is what you do. 2 outs, runners at 1st and 2nd. You lead 7-2. But, the best batter for the Indians, Francisco Lindor, is coming up. Double makes 7-2, 7-4. Another walk, tying run comes up. With your history? Empty the bag. You get to a Game 7.”Even though Colin agrees with Maddon’s pitching move last night, he thinks the Indians have the Game 7 advantage with starter Corey Kluber, Andrew Miller and the rest of the Cleveland bullpen rested and ready to go. He likes the Tribe at home to win Game 7 and the championship, but wouldn’t mind seeing the Cubs prove him wrong.Washington was ranked 5th in the first college football, and some are up and arms because the Huskies are undefeated, but upon closer inspection their schedule doesn’t stack up, and one-loss Texas A&M deserves to be ranked ahead of them at this point. Colin isn’t in the business of rewarding bad out of conference schedules, and although Washington is better than Fake I.D.’s Iowa or Nebraska, they still shouldn’t be rewarded for playing cupcakes.“Washington has played a garbage out of conference schedule. Struggled to win at awful Arizona. And we now know that Stanford and Oregon aren’t very good.”Guests:Ray Lewis – Two-time Super Bowl champion is in-studio discussing the difference between friends and teammates, why he can’t stand Jamie Collins’ comments that he’d rather play video games than football, his take on Cam’s comments blaming the officials, and why he doesn’t think officials give Cam his due.Joel Klatt – Fox Sports College Football Analyst is in-studio to talk about his issues with the initial College Football Playoff Rankings, why he thinks the selection process is flawed, push back against Colin’s opinion that Washington isn’t a Top 5 team, and his highly anticipated Almost Upset of the Week.Miesha Tate – UFC fighter and former bantamweight champ is in-studio to look ahead to her upcoming UFC 205 fight against Raquel Pennington at Madison Square Garden, explain why she chose to be a UFC fighter, what it’s like to walk out for a big fight, whether she prefers a chokehold or a knock out, and why her relationship with Ronda Rousey is so complicated.Tom Verducci – Fox Sports Baseball Analyst joins the show to preview World Series Game 7, discuss what he makes of Maddon’s use of Aroldis Chapman in Game 6, who he thinks has the edge in the deciding game, how the scope of this game is so massive, and why he thinks Jake Arrieta could pitch tonight for the Cubs after starting last night.Aaron Eckhart – Actor and star of Bleed for This is in-studio discussing his new movie about boxer Vinny Pazienza, his role in the movie as trainer Kevin Rooney, how he changed his body for the role, his recent role in Sully, and why it’s different working with Tom Hanks.
Boogie Cousins has only been in New Orleans for a week, but he’s already doing some crucial community outreach.Today, he and Anthony Davis were spotted riding on a float in the Zulu parade at Mardi Gras. Davis was on the mic working the crowd, and Boogie was wearing panties on his head for some reason.Looks like Boogie’s loving the Big Easy. They don’t get down like this in Sacramento.It’s safe to say that @boogiecousins is having no problems adjusting to New Orleans. He’s currently riding in Zulu with panties on his head. pic.twitter.com/F9TZC0DjwP— Emma Discher (@EmmaDischer) February 28, 2017 Advertisement
September 1, 2007 Your time and energy may be limited, but opportunities to learn more about eBay are in constant supply. As a part-time seller, you’ll benefit by learning as much as you can about selling on eBay. After all, if you’re going to manage your risk and maximize the return on your efforts, you need to know just as much as full-timers do.Part-timers can help themselves a great deal by picking an area they already know a lot about. “You have to have an interest in it, and you have to have a feel for it,” Ford-Freeman says. “And you have to be willing to educate yourself in the forums.”One such forum is the Part-Time eBay Sellers Discussion Board, a place for part-time sellers to share experiences and information. On the forums, sellers with lots of experience offer countless nuggets of advice to help newcomers. “I learned everything I know about selling on eBay from the forums,” says Ford-Freeman.The Part-Timer eBay Sellers Discussion Board isn’t the only place part-timers can go for help. eBay has many tools that part-timers can use to reduce the amount of time they spend on listing and managing sales (see “Power Up: It’s Tool Time” at right). And the huge amount of information and advice available from resources like Seller Central is also useful for many part-time and full-time sellers. The tools and resources available at Seller Central range from strategies for getting started to best practices of top sellers and e-mail newsletters with the latest tips on promotions and selling features.Never Gonna Give It UpVeteran part-timers like Ford-Freeman have great confidence that they’re on top of their markets and have the skills to move their inventory. In the future, these part-timers intend to keep working at their businesses on eBay, not only because they enjoy the profits, but also because they gain a sense of fulfillment from their work.Ford-Freeman, who is approaching retirement from her day job, plans to work a little harder at her business in order to pay for post-retirement activities. “I plan to indulge in all those things I can’t [indulge in] right now, like researching, writing and traveling,” she says. “I think supplementing [my income] with eBay is going to be the solution.”And Etter is confident that part-time sellers will continue to be an important part of eBay. “The future,” he says, “will be full of opportunities for part-timers.”Mark Henricks writes on business and technology for leading publications and is author of Not Just a Living. Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. Free Webinar | Sept 5: Tips and Tools for Making Progress Toward Important Goals Janice Ford-Freeman loves shopping garage sales for bargain-priced vintage clothing. She loves taking her finds and selling them on eBay even more. Ford-Freeman’s business on eBay, which she conducts under eBay User ID crestwoodian, is a part-time endeavor that blends enjoyment and income. “It gave me a fabulous outlet to market the bargains I found,” says Ford-Freeman, who works by day at The University of Alabama, Birmingham. “It’s been wonderful.”Ford-Freeman has plenty of company from other part-time sellers, says Nathan Etter, senior manager at eBay. According to a June 2006 ACNielsen study, 1.3 million sellers worldwide make all or part of their living on eBay. “A big percentage of those are part-time sellers,” says Etter.People sell part time on eBay for a number of reasons. “First of all,” says Etter, “it can be extremely profitable.” Part-timers usually don’t hire employees or rent warehouses, so they enjoy lower overhead than many businesses. Ford-Freeman, for instance, does as much as $3,000 in a single month working out of her home.Flexibility also attracts part-timers. “They can [sell] on their own time, after their kids are asleep or whenever they want to,” Etter says. “And, equally important, they can do as much or as little [selling] as they want. The business really scales to fit their lives.”Ford-Freeman normally works about 20 hours a week but sometimes cuts back on business to a sales level as low as $150 a month. “[My success] really depends on how much work I put into [my business on eBay], as well as the market,” she explains.Many part-time sellers are motivated by a desire to find an enjoyable hobby with a moneymaking sideline. “I really like the extra money,” says Ford-Freeman. “And I get to indulge this interest of mine. [Instead of] buying all these cool, funky old clothes and having them pile up in my house, now when they pile up, I get them advertised and shipped.”Part-Time ChallengesDespite the rewards, part-time selling presents some special challenges. According to Etter, sourcing is the biggest trouble spot. “The number-one challenge for our part-time sellers is getting a consistent [source] of properly priced inventory,” Etter says.Vendors maintain a steady supply of goods for part-timers, but selling only part time on eBay makes it tough to know what is in demand and, more important, what is about to be in demand. “As a part-time seller, you have less time to spend looking for trends and getting ahead with new products that are hot in the marketplace and may be in short supply,” Etter says. “If you’re not full time, you’re not constantly on that quest, and you may not have as big a network of suppliers.” To minimize supplier problems, Etter says, be consistent. You may not work at sourcing full time, but don’t stop looking for suppliers for so long that you lose touch.Part-timers can get the biggest bang for their buck by following and forecasting the demand for their items. One of the most popular resources for this is What’s Hot, a part of Seller Central that lists ways to identify bestselling categories and stay informed about upcoming promotions and buying trends. “Markets may change, particularly if you’re selling very trendy [items],” Etter explains. “If you’ve acquired a lot of inventory and the market doesn’t sustain it, you may end up [underwater].”Part-timers also have to deal with uneven income from their endeavors. If they’re traveling or too busy with jobs and the demands of daily life to attend to their business on eBay, sales may stop altogether. And working an irregular, abbreviated schedule can make it challenging to give great customer service.eBay provides customer service tools that can help part-timers manage their schedules and meet their customers’ expectations: Sellers can create Frequently Asked Questions lists with standard replies for curious buyers, and eBay Store owners can notify prospective buyers about their upcoming vacations.One key to success as a part-timer is carefully choosing the items you sell and the markets you sell to. “There are items on eBay that are easier to sell than others,” Etter says. In general, he says, products that have a high ratio of value to density (or weight) are easier to sell. In other words, lighter, smaller, more costly products tend to sell better than heavier, bulkier, less expensive products. “We find part-timers in almost every category,” Etter says. “But the ones who are most successful focus on the value-to-density ratio.”Scarcity is another important factor when it comes to selecting the right product or category for a part-time eBay enterprise. There is always a market for limited edition, exclusive and retired items as well as any item that seems scarce in supply, says Etter. “If you can get consistent, properly priced access to that inventory, those are great products to start with on eBay,” he says. 8 min read Power Up: It’s Tool Time Some eBay part-timers like to do things hands-on, in what could be called the old-fashioned way. Other sellers look for easier, faster ways to get their work done. Janice Ford-Freeman, for instance, always lists using InkFrog, a third-party, eBay Certified Provider that automates the listing process.One of the most useful tools for part-time eBay sellers is Turbo Lister. “You can list items on the site using our regular form, but Turbo Lister has additional capabilities,” says Nathan Etter, senior manager at eBay. “When you’re selling similar items in volume, it makes the listing process much easier.”Selling Manager is another eBay tool well-suited for part-timers who want to boost sales volume without a corresponding increase in time. “Selling Manager helps volume sellers manage their inventory, keep track of activity on the site and keep track of sales over time,” explains Etter.eBay Stores is another option worth considering for part-timers because it gives sellers a permanent shelf for merchandising items. “[eBay Store owners] have a number of tools that allow them to produce newsletters, offer discounts or perform other marketing [tasks] that drive buyers to their sites and potentially create repeat buyers,” adds Etter. “An eBay Store is a very inexpensive way for a part-time seller to create an online presence, and it doesn’t take nearly as much time and money as [launching] your own website.”In addition to the tools offered by eBay, many Certified Providers offer tools that give part-timers a wide range of sophisticated capabilities. Etter says consulting services such as As Was give eBay sellers valuable assistance on topics such as serving customers and listing artwork. Aspyro, another Certified Provider of consulting services, helps sellers analyze and develop overall strategies to maximize sales and profits.Listing items for sale is one of the most time-intensive yet critical parts of the business, and tools that speed up the process are popular with part-timers. Auctiva, One-Minute Lister, Vendio and other third-party listing tools can help sellers with image hosting, templates and inventory management. “The solutions aren’t free,” says Etter, “but part-timers find they are worth the investment in terms of saving time and [boosting] profits.” It’s What You Know Attend this free webinar and learn how you can maximize efficiency while getting the most critical things done right. Register Now »
How do your customers use the web? It’s a simple question, but a question many small-business owners forget to discuss when working on their website. Frequently, small businesses get focused on their own technology and not the tools of their customers. From iPads and smartphones to oversized monitors and laptops, how do you deliver your message to your customer online today?Review the Metrics If you have a website, you should have some type of metrics or analytic application on your website. This is a way of measuring traffic to your website, and a feature offered by some applications is the ability to review browser information. This means reviewing what web browsers and operating systems your customers use and what screen resolution they have set on their monitors. These analytics can help you decide if it’s time to deliver content in different ways.Mobile Style When your website is accessed through a mobile device, how does it look? Here are two things to keep in mind when thinking about your website. The first is that image-heavy sites take longer to download on cell phones. The second is that Flash animation can’t be seen on all phones. However, you don’t have to sacrifice these features on your full-size website if that is where most of your customers are coming from, but you may want to ask your web developer to create an alternate style for your mobile audience. There are two approaches that you may want to ask your developer about: creating a style for the mobile web browser; of which there are many, or for the screen size of the mobile audience. The way this works is that your developer can program your website to identify the device’s browser or screen size and return the style for the phone. If you have a number of visitors who access your website from their phones, you should add this feature to your website.Print Style Websites are designed and developed to work on some type of computer screen, but if you know your audience likes to print your pages or articles, you may want to provide this option. This is a feature many online magazines like Entrepreneur use, but this feature can also be used by educational sites for sharing content, or by restaurants for displaying menus. This is an extra feature; you will need to request a printer-friendly style sheet from your web developer, and it isn’t something that takes long to code. The feature can be designed to be executed when someone hits a print icon on your web page, or when your users hit print from within their web browsers.User Style You may want your website to have a certain look and feel, but consider this: How many different audiences do you have visiting your website? Business is about showing your customers that you understand them and are flexible to their needs. Begin that conversation by giving your audience control over some items on your website. Font styles can be a great place to start. Provide users with a way to increase and decrease the size of your font to make reading content easier for your visitor. You can also let customers control colors so they can pick light text on dark background or dark text on a light background. These style changes will help your users make the most of your website, and consequently, they’ll spend more time reviewing your information. Just like each of the other styles, you will need to have this specifically created by your developer.Take your website to a new level and create styles that will show your visitors you want to work with them. 4 min read Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box. July 2, 2010 Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. Register Now »
Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. 3 min read The applications for 3-D printing are being driven in a new direction.If you were planning a cross-country road trip, how much would you budget for gas? For Cody and Tyler Kor and their dog, Cupid, they’ll be figuring just 10 gallons each way for the 2,900-mile journey from New York to San Francisco and back. And Hint: it has a little something to do with 3-D printing.The brothers will be following in the footsteps of car enthusiast Horatio Nelson Jackson and mechanic Sewall K. Crocker, who made the same journey with their dog Bud in 1903. It took Jackson and Crocker more than 63 days and 800 gallons of fuel to accomplish the first cross-country automobile journey in a 20-hp Winton. The Kors, by contrast, have planned their journey to take a bit more than 44 hours, allowing for human and canine potty breaks, in a considerably more futuristic vehicle: the largely 3-D printed, three-wheeled electric car dubbed the Urbee 2.Cody and Tyler are part of a team led by their father, Jim Kor, who is president of Kor Ecologic and one of the key designers of the incredibly efficient, aerodynamic vehicle. Its name comes from the three core tenets that went into its design: urban, electric and ethanol. The Ecologic team’s goal was to create a small car designed for urban use, powered by an electric motor and an ethanol-fueled combustion engine.The team hoped to enter the Automotive X Prize competition in 2009, but ran into a snag when they were ready to create a prototype. The fiberglass molding they had originally planned to use for their prototype proved to be too time-consuming to work within their schedule, and they were forced to withdraw from the competition. The team turned to an unlikely source for a solution: 3-D printing. Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global Working with 3-D printing company Stratasys, they created a 1/6th-scale model, and then finally a full-scale prototype. The three-wheeled car weighs about 1,200 pounds and features a single-cylinder 7-hp engine that uses either diesel or ethanol and networked batteries to drive two electric motors, giving it the equivalent of 16 hp and a max speed of about 70 mph. Steel tubing in the chassis and framing helps make the car strong enough to meet or exceed road-worthy safety standards.Most intriguing, more than 50 percent of the car is 3-D printed. “Everything you typically see and touch on the car, as you drive the car, will be 3-D printed,” Kor was recently quoted saying in Popular Mechanics. That method of production makes the Urbee 2 more affordable — the sticker price will likely be between $16,000 and $50,000 depending on how many are produced yearly.Even more important to Kor and his team, though, is the fact that 3-D printing allows the Urbee 2 to be manufactured with minimal environmental impact.”Designing for sustainability can arguably be stated to be humanity’s biggest and most important challenge of the coming century,” says Kor. “It’s something we absolutely need to get right.”What crazy apps and gadgets have you come across lately? Let us know by emailing us at FarOutTech@entrepreneur.com or by telling us in the comments below. November 12, 2013 Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box. Register Now »