Image credit: Security Networks This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Botnets move P2P as centrally controlled zombie networks come under fire (2011, April 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-04-botnets-p2p-centrally-zombie-networks.html Traditionally, botnets have relied on a small group of control computers to send out instructions to thousands of infected PC’s to do their dirty work, despite the fact that is has a very large major weakness; take away the few central computers and the botnet dies. Because of this, another type of botnet, where each bot contains additional code that allows it to pass along instructional information, is starting to emerge. With these so-called P2P networks, no central command is needed, instructions are fed to just one or two members of the network, and those few pass them along to others, who in turn pass them on until the whole network has been updated and is working as one.Clearly this new type of botnet would be a lot harder to kill. Enter researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratories, in New Mexico, where Stephan Eidenbenz and his colleagues have been creating and killing botnets in a secure lab. Recently, they published a paper in Computer Networks describing a modified version of a P2P botnet that they believe would create a significant problem for those looking to stamp out botnets in general. In this new configuration, the bot network would set itself up into a hierarchy with instructions coming only from a computer higher up the in the hierarchy, who would in turn only receive commands from one higher up yet, until the one at the top is reached.Creating such a network would overcome some of the technical difficulties that botnet builders have been running into when trying to create strong stable conventional P2P botnets, and that is, the complications that arise when trying to create a network that relies purely on individual PC’s being able to communicate with one another; that would be sort of like relying on information from word of mouth, or rumor, rather than getting it straight from the top. In the new configuration (wherein the authors clearly don’t disclose the how-to part, as that would give the bad guys the goods) there is once again just a few computers running the show, but the trick is, the hierarchy is scrambled anew each day allowing different computers to sit at the top issuing commands down the line, thus making it virtually impossible for law enforcement to track down which machines are actually issuing the commands at any given point in time.By doing research of this kind, those on the right side of the law are hoping to create the next generation botnets before those on the wrong side figure out how to create them for themselves; and hopefully by that time, ways to kill them. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Explore further Researchers: Botnets Getting Beefier More information: AntBot: Anti-pollution peer-to-peer botnets, Computer Networks, doi:10.1016/j.comnet.2011.02.006AbstractBotnets have emerged as one of the most severe cyber-threats in recent years. To evade detection and improve resistance against countermeasures, botnets have evolved from the first generation that relies on IRC chat channels to deliver commands to the current generation that uses highly resilient P2P (peer-to-peer) protocols to spread their C&C (Command and Control) information. On an encouraging note, the seminal work done by Holz et al.  showed that P2P botnets, although relieved from the single point of failure that IRC botnets suffer, can be easily disrupted using pollution-based mitigation schemes.For white-hat cyber-security practitioners to be better prepared for potentially destructive P2P botnets, it is necessary for them to understand the strategy space from the attacker’s perspective. Against this backdrop, we analyze a new type of P2P botnets, which we call AntBot, that aims to spread their C&C information to individual bots even though an adversary persistently pollutes keys used by seized bots to search the C&C information. The tree-like structure of AntBot, together with the randomness and redundancy in its design, renders it possible that individual bots, when captured, reveal only limited information. We mathematically analyze the performance of AntBot from the perspectives of reachability, resilience to pollution, and scalability. To evaluate the effectiveness of AntBot against pollution-based mitigation in a practical setting, we develop a distributed high-fidelity P2P botnet simulator that uses the actual implementation code of aMule, a popular Kademlia-based P2P client. The simulator offers us a tool to evaluate the attacker’s strategy in the cyber space without causing ethical or legal issues, which may result from real-world deployment. Using extensive simulation, we demonstrate that AntBot operates resiliently against pollution-based mitigation. We further suggest a few potential defense schemes that could effectively disrupt AntBot operations and also present challenges that researchers need to address when developing these techniques in practice.via Technology Review (PhysOrg.com) — Botnets, those networks of computers infected with bots (little pieces of code that allow a computer to be manipulated from an outside source) have increasingly of late come under attack by law enforcement agencies as it’s become apparent that criminals are using them to steal personal information such as credit card numbers and pins. But, as the centrally based botnets go down, new peer to peer (P2P) botnets are cropping up to replace them.
(PhysOrg.com) — A group of researchers from Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, have shown that the emissions produced by aircraft idling at the gate, or lining up for takeoff, contain tiny oil droplets, that when exposed to ordinary sunlight, undergo a chemical reaction that causes them to solidify into tiny particles that can infiltrate the lungs and eventually the brain. In a paper published in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, the team led by Allen Robinson, describe how they collected samples of exhaust from an idling KC-135 military cargo plane, into large Teflon coated bags, and how they then exposed that exhaust to sunlight and/or UV light to initiate photo-oxidation (when a polymer surface degrades in oxygen or ozone). The result, they say, was that the original droplets of oil were converted into multiple minute solid particles, small enough to penetrate the lungs and brain of people working or living near airports.In contrast, exhaust emissions from airplanes running at speed, such as when in-flight, tend to be mostly comprised of solid particles, which would not be effected by sunlight in the same way, and thus would pose no additional health hazards over what is already known about such types of pollution.The paper highlights the fact that airplane pollution, and specifically the kind produced at airports, is in stark contrast to other types of pollution emitters such as cars and manufacturing plants, in that little to nothing has been done to reduce the amounts spewed into the environment. It also shows that the type of pollution produced at airports is far more hazardous than was previously thought; but, because these findings are so new, it’s likely no research has yet been conducted to ascertain what exactly happens to the human body when these tiny particles are breathed in on a regular basis.The authors also mention in their paper, the folly of studying emissions from aircraft (or presumably any other pollution emitters for that matter) without following up to find out what becomes of such pollutants as they enter the environment and are affected by such forces as UV radiation, temperature, or other substances. Explore further Citation: Idling airplanes produce more harmful pollution than previously thought (2011, May 12) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-05-idling-airplanes-pollution-previously-thought.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Secondary aerosol formation from photochemical aging of aircraft exhaust in a smog chamber, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4135-4147, 2011 doi:10.5194/acp-11-4135-2011AbstractField experiments were performed to investigate the effects of photo-oxidation on fine particle emissions from an in-use CFM56-2B gas turbine engine mounted on a KC-135 Stratotanker airframe. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber from a rake inlet installed one-meter downstream of the engine exit plane of a parked and chocked aircraft. The chamber was then exposed to sunlight and/or UV lights to initiate photo-oxidation. Separate tests were performed at different engine loads (4, 7, 30, 85 %). Photo-oxidation created substantial secondary particulate matter (PM), greatly exceeding the direct PM emissions at each engine load after an hour or less of aging at typical summertime conditions. After several hours of photo-oxidation, the ratio of secondary-to-primary PM mass was on average 35 ± 4.1, 17 ± 2.5, 60 ± 2.2, and 2.7 ± 1.1 for the 4, 7, 30, and 85 % load experiments, respectively. The composition of secondary PM formed strongly depended on load. At 4 % load, secondary PM was dominated by secondary organic aerosol (SOA). At higher loads, the secondary PM was mainly secondary sulfate. A traditional SOA model that accounts for SOA formation from single-ring aromatics and other volatile organic compounds underpredicts the measured SOA formation by ~60 % at 4 % load and ~40 % at 85 % load. Large amounts of lower-volatiliy organic vapors were measured in the exhaust; they represent a significant pool of SOA precursors that are not included in traditional SOA models. These results underscore the importance of accounting for atmospheric processing when assessing the influence of aircraft emissions on ambient PM levels. Models that do not account for this processing will likely underpredict the contribution of aircraft emissions to local and regional air pollution. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Credit: Magnus Rosendahl, Public-domain-photos.com Bees helping to monitor air quality at German airports
The authors looked at a set of what they call “18,520 ultrafast black swan events” that they uncovered in stock-price movements between 2006 and 2011. A case in point is what occurred on May 6, 2010, when it took just minutes for a spontaneous mix of interactions in cyberspace to generate the Flash Crash, first a plunge, in minutes, and soon after a recovery.The speed in which the rises and falls occur might last no longer than half a second, unapparent to any human who is tracking prices. Johnson says if you blink you miss it. Flash events may happen in milliseconds and have nothing to do with a company’s real value.To examine such incidences and their frequency the authors of the study waded through price logs from over 60 markets collected by Nanex, a Chicago company that sells streaming market data. The data revealed that the ultrafast fracture events were not infrequent but common, totaling 18,520 in the 2006 to 2010 time span. The authors looked for extreme changes in a stock price, which they defined as a change greater than 0.8 per cent, over timescales shorter than 1.5 seconds.The speed in which ultrafast events happen is of concern as human oversight becomes impossible if trades are taking place faster than humans can react. Machine trading today carries computerized trading algorithms that make automated trades in milliseconds and make some experts uncomfortable, in the fear that out-of-control algorithms can cause a crash. Following the May 2010 event, U.S. regulators, as a safety mechanism, upheld circuit breakers designed to stop trading if a stock price makes a sudden large move. Whether or not that is the best solution around, considering the speed in which today’s machine trading can occur, does not convince all market experts. At that level of resolution, one of the study authors said it was troublesome to even observe, leave alone regulate. The authors suggest an early warning system for when the markets are becoming unstable. According to a Wired report, the authors would like to see an approach that might help steer automated markets by introducing “rogue algorithms when herd behaviors appear imminent.”In a recent Q&A interview, Johnson said the “fracture” analogy to real materials is useful in assessing today’s financial markets. “Where we want to head to is the analogy of a trained aircraft engineer, who can pretty much look at the microscopic arrangement of small fractures in an aircraft and judge whether it is safe to continue flying that plane or not. To have this for markets would be an incredibly important step toward understanding, and managing, risk.” More information: Financial black swans driven by ultrafast machine ecology, by Neil Johnson, Guannan Zhao, Eric Hunsader, Jing Meng, Amith Ravindar, Spencer Carran, Brian Tivnan, arXiv:1202.1448v1 [physics.soc-ph] arxiv.org/abs/1202.1448AbstractSociety’s drive toward ever faster socio-technical systems, means that there is an urgent need to understand the threat from ‘black swan’ extreme events that might emerge. On 6 May 2010, it took just five minutes for a spontaneous mix of human and machine interactions in the global trading cyberspace to generate an unprecedented system-wide Flash Crash. However, little is known about what lies ahead in the crucial sub-second regime where humans become unable to respond or intervene sufficiently quickly. Here we analyze a set of 18,520 ultrafast black swan events that we have uncovered in stock-price movements between 2006 and 2011. We provide empirical evidence for, and an accompanying theory of, an abrupt system-wide transition from a mixed human-machine phase to a new all-machine phase characterized by frequent black swan events with ultrafast durations (<650ms for crashes, <950ms for spikes). Our theory quantifies the systemic fluctuations in these two distinct phases in terms of the diversity of the system's internal ecology and the amount of global information being processed. Our finding that the ten most susceptible entities are major international banks, hints at a hidden relationship between these ultrafast 'fractures' and the slow 'breaking' of the global financial system post-2006. More generally, our work provides tools to help predict and mitigate the systemic risk developing in any complex socio-technical system that attempts to operate at, or beyond, the limits of human response times. (PhysOrg.com) -- In the United States, ultrafast trading in financial markets between 2006 and 2011 was the underlying factor for over 18,000 extreme price changes, according to a new study. Neil Johnson, a professor in the physics department of the University of Miami in Coral Gables, one of the authors of the study, thinks that a buildup of such "fractures" can destabilize the market. This study, “Financial Black Swans Driven by Ultrafast Machine Ecology” was submitted to arXiv earlier this month, suggesting the link between extreme-change fractures and market crashes. Citation: Study links ultrafast machine trading with risk of crash (2012, February 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-02-links-ultrafast-machine.html US imposes new rules on high-speed traders Crash event. Stock symbol is ABK. Date is 11/04/2009. Number of sequential down ticks is 20. Price change is -0.22. Duration is 25ms (i.e. 0.025 seconds). Percentage price change downwards is 14% (i.e. crash magnitude is 14%). Image: arXiv:1202.1448v1 © 2011 PhysOrg.com Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(Phys.org) —Santo Fortunato, Associate Professor of Complex Systems at Aalto University in Espoo, Finland has published a Correspondence piece in the journal Nature, outlining what he describes as an increasing time lag between notable work accomplished by scientists and the awarding of a Nobel Prize for what they’ve achieved. A glance at secret process behind Nobel delay Of course another explanation for the time lag might be the nature of scientific discoveries in general—as we learn more it takes more time for new discoveries to prove themselves. On the other hand it could be that committee members feel more comfortable giving awards to people who have maintained strong reputations throughout their career—to avoid embarrassment should a blemish show up on their record after their groundbreaking work.In any case, Fortunato notes that the trend is increasing across all disciplines, and that there is one example already of what he calls the extinction of laureates—Robert Brout who would have been on the stage with François Englert and Peter Higgs last year when they received a shared Physics award for the discovery of the Higgs boson—he’d passed away at the age of 82, two years earlier. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further Credit: (c) Nature 508, 186 (10 April 2014) doi:10.1038/508186a More information: Prizes: Growing time lag threatens Nobels, Nature 508, 186 (10 April 2014) DOI: 10.1038/508186a Journal information: Nature Fortunato points out that since the creation of the awards (established in 1895, first awarded in 1901) those who win the award have had to wait longer and longer on average to receive it. Prior to 1940, for example, just 20 percent of recipients for work in physics had to wait 20 years or more, 15 percent for chemistry and 24 percent for those working in the physiology or medicine fields. In contrast, since 1985, those percentages have grown to 60, 52 and 45 percent. At the rate we’re going, he notes dryly, there will come a day sometime soon when no one will be able to win any of the awards because they would have all died already—prizes are not granted posthumously.No one really knows why the wait for receiving a prize has grown so long. Some suggest it’s because the committees that grant them find more modern work less ground-breaking and thus keep going back in time to find something they see as worthy. Others suggest the opposite is true, that the glut of breakthroughs creates a backlog, forcing committee members to choose people who deserve the award before they grow old and die (similar to the problem found with many sports organizations as induction into various Halls of Fame tend to skew towards older and older players.) In this case, the problem would be that so few people are awarded each year. © 2014 Phys.org Citation: Professor notes wait for Nobel science prizes is growing alarming long (2014, April 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-04-professor-nobel-science-prizes-alarming.html
More information: Markus J. Kalmutzki et al. Secondary building units as the turning point in the development of the reticular chemistry of MOFs, Science Advances (2018). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat9180 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further The reticular table. A table of possible bipartite nets representing binary frameworks made by reticular chemistry. Credit: Science Advances, Adapted from: Acc.Chem.Res, doi: 10.1021/ar800124u The past two decades have witnessed an explosive growth in the field of MOFs, with more than 84,185 MOF structures documented in the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre. A collection of papers on the synthesis, structure and application of MOFs continues to be published every year. The SBU approach has advanced MOF chemistry as the most significant contributor to the rapid development observed in the field. Many MOF syntheses, investigations and applications are derived from the SBU approach. Now reviewing the field of MOF chemistry for Science Advances, Markus Kalmutzki, Nikita Hankel and Omar M. Yaghi – recently awarded the BBVA Foundation of Frontiers of Knowledge Award in the Basic Sciences category – consider the history of MOFs and their applications that have arisen via the SBU approach. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a fascinating class of highly porous materials. They are structurally composed of metal ions/clusters and organic linkers for promising functional diversity in a variety of fields. Properties include their unique crystallinity, tunable porosity and structural diversity. The performance of MOFs was highlighted in diverse applications such as gas storage, catalysis sensing and drug delivery. In particular, SBUs play an important role in vapor absorption, as reported with high water absorption. The structural diversity of MOFs depends on SBUs with future work projected for industrial applications including gas absorption and separation, harvesting water from air, bioimaging and therapeutics.By design, polynuclear cluster nodes, also known as SBUs, are able to impart (1) thermodynamic stability via strong covalent bonds and (2) mechanical/architectural stability by strong directional bonds that can lock down the position of metal centers in metal-organic frameworks. This property contrasts with those of unsteady and nondirectional single metal nodes that formed weak bonds to neutral organic donor linkers. The impact of SBU on the structure, chemistry and applications of MOFs. The rich chemical architecture of MOFs is founded on the structural diversity of the SBUs – rendering MOFs mechanically and architecturally stable and thus permanently porous. The chemical nature of SBUs gave rise to the concept of “framework chemistry” – the post synthetic chemical modification of MOFs as the key to extending their applications. Credit: Science Advances, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aat9180 Journal information: Science Advances Chemical ‘caryatids’ improve the stability of metal-organic frameworks In contrast to the unpredictable method of traditional synthetic organic chemistry where little to no correlation exists between the structure of starting materials and products, greater predictability exists in MOF chemistry, as they are designed with predetermined topologies. In the synthetic process, the chemical building units required to construct the selected net are determined. The structural diversity observed in MOF chemistry originates from a wide variety of available SBU geometries; specific structures can be designed by choosing appropriately shaped and sized building units. The authors then detailed diverse methods of MOF synthesis, their complexity, chemical frameworks and applications that originated from secondary building units during MOF development. In practice, MOFs can be used for gas storage and separation with specific implications to separate carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases for environmental sustainability. Metal organic frameworks can also form versatile heterogenous catalysts for efficient organic transformations, be used as luminescent sensors and in drug cargo delivery for cancer therapy. Applications in diverse fields were enabled by the porosity inherent to MOFs, made possible by the SBU approach. The chemical nature inherent to MOFs and SBUs that led to the development of the properties of adsorption, separation and catalysis were then dissected further within the review. The accessibility of pore space within open framework structures enabled the applications observed for MOFs in different fields. The basis for MOFs is related to the ability to manipulate matter with a precision previously only known in well-established molecular chemistry. The crystallinity and porosity of the framework was fully preserved during construction, leading to the development of “crystals as molecules.” Introduction of the SBU approach was a turning point that enabled the extension of precision chemistry from molecular complexes and polymers into 2-D and 3-D frameworks, to design rational structures using functional building units. Recent advances in the field of MOF synthesis confirm the potential to translate properties of functional building units into a structural framework. Such properties include linear and nonlinear optical character, magnetism, conductivity and catalysis. Recent advances in computational chemistry can also help understand material properties and predict structures that can be constructed with the targeted character.Complexity and heterogeneity can be integrated within MOFs as recently proposed, to explore and analyze their impact on the structure and in the resulting properties, in the future. Both complexity and heterogeneity allow to further expand the scope of structures, providing access to materials with great potential for increased performance. Controlling the spatial distribution of different organic functionalities and metal ions can lead to design sequences within or along the MOF backbone. Expected spatial arrangements can be achieved by integrating multiple SBUs with specific binding patterns directly into framework formation for a single material, or via post-synthetic methods. The realization of this vision can give rise to sequence-specific materials designed into MOFs to carry out intended functions. Introduction of the SBU marks a turning point in the development of MOF chemistry – and will continue to play a key role in their future development to access novel structures, properties and applications. © 2018 Phys.org Citation: Secondary building units (SBUs)—the turning point in the development of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) (2018, October 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-10-secondary-sbusthe-metal-organic-frameworks-mofs.html There is an urgent need to control materials on the molecular level to make “materials on demand.” A strategy to develop such materials is in development in reticular chemistry, derived from the Latin translation “reticulum” as “having the form of a net.” The strategy links discrete building units (molecules and clusters) via bonds to make large and extended crystalline structures. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are the most prominent class of materials in the realm of reticular chemistry. Such crystalline, extended structures are constructed by stitching together inorganic polynuclear clusters known as secondary building units (SBUs) and organic linkers via strong bonds.
L dwarfs are variable in many ways, including periodic modulation due to clouds, radio emission due to aurora, or the presence of white-light flares. In general, white-light emission occurs through reconnection events in the stellar magnetic field, what results in heating of the lower chromosphere. Although white-light flares are regularly reported on various types of stars, they are rarely observed on L dwarfs. Notably, such events observed on L dwarfs exhibit some of the largest changes in brightness ever recorded. However, finding new white-light flares on L dwarfs is challenging as it requires long-duration observations, in particular high cadence wide-field observations targeting very faint objects.A team of astronomers led by James A. G. Jackman of University of Warwick, UK, has conducted such observations using the Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS). The observational campaign, aimed at searching for stellar flares on low-mass stars, resulted in the detection of a white-light superflare from ULAS J224940.13-011236.9 (or ULAS J2249-0112) on August 13, 2017. The object on which this flare was spotted is an ultracool L2.5 dwarf with an effective temperature of 1,930 degrees K, about 10 times smaller than our sun, located some 248 light years away from the Earth.”In this letter, we present the detection of a white-light superflare from the L2.5 dwarf ULAS J224940.13-011236.9, which was observed at high cadence with the Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS),” the researchers wrote in the paper. NGTS observations show that the flare on ULAS J2249-0112 lasted about nine and a half minutes, with a rise time of 12 seconds. The flare had an amplitude of -10 mag, a luminosity of 530 octillion erg/s and an energy of 2.3 decillion erg.The astronomers note that the newly observed flare is the second-largest flare detected from an L dwarf, and the second to be spotted from the ground. Moreover, ULAS J2249-0112 turns out to be the coolest star ever found to exhibit a white-light flare and the sixth L dwarf to have exhibited flaring activity.”With a spectral type of L2.5 we believe ULAS J2249-0112 is the coolest star to show a white-light flare to date,” the scientists noted.According to the authors, the detection of such a large flare on ULAS J2249-0112 illustrates the importance of high-cadence observations with NGTS in studying the largest stellar flares from the coolest stars. “This behavior would not be visible in the TESS [NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite] 30-minute cadence full-frame images, nor in all-sky surveys, which monitor large areas of sky each night. This shows how NGTS is in an ideal position to probe flare behavior on the latest spectral types,” the researchers concluded. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. European astronomers have spotted a giant white-light flare on the ultracool L dwarf designated ULAS J224940.13-011236.9. The newly detected flare is one of the largest flares ever observed from an ultracool dwarf. The discovery is detailed in a paper published February 3 on the arXiv.org pre-print server. © 2019 Science X Network Citation: Giant flare detected on an L dwarf (2019, February 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-02-giant-flare-dwarf.html More information: James A. G. Jackman et al. Detection of a giant white-light flare on an L2.5 dwarf with the Next Generation Transit Survey. arXiv:1902.00900 [astro-ph.SR]. arxiv.org/abs/1902.00900 Top: NGTS lightcurve of the flare from ULAS J2249-0112. Blue points are NGTS photometry and the best fitting model is overlaid in red. Bottom: Residuals from the model fit. Credit: Jackman et al., 2019. Explore further Giant flare detected on a pre-main sequence M star
Sitting in front of a screen is bad for you. Then it’s good for you. Then it’s bad for you again. But, like, only a bit. Allow me to explain. This is exactly the hypothesis that two researchers from the University of Oxford tested in a paper called “A Large-Scale Test of the Goldilocks Hypothesis: Quantifying the Relations Between Digital-Screen Use and the Mental Well Being of Adolescents.” (Przybylski and Weinstein, 2017). The authors collected information from a frankly ridiculous number of adolescents in the UK, resulting in screen time and mental well being data on over 120,000 young people. Read the whole story: Forbes …
International Women Polytechnic (IWP) is organising its annual function titled Melange – The blend of Art. The event will feature a fashion show, dance and musical performances, dramas and much more. The show will portray the talent and power of the women who are training under IWP. The institution has been working on building and shaping today’s women’s confidence, skill for bringing them at par with global standards since last 15 years and take out of the box initiative by teaching and training our women student with selected vocational/professional courses which provides them the opportunity to get into respectable jobs and thus make them self reliant. It emphasizes on personality and skill development workshops, security awareness and to cope with various crimes against women with the help of Delhi Police and several NGO’s.So head on to this event to get a glimpse of the talent and power of the feminine. When: 28 June Timing: 6 pm onwards Where: Hotel Piccadely, Janakpuri,
Like rivers that cascade fearlessly through landscapes that belong to different countries, like winds that blow incessantly over barbed wires, birds fly and nestle boundlessly. Borders have been built through water-bodies, fields and even houses by humans, and they are for humans. Goutam Ghose’s National Award winning Best Bengali Film Shankhachil is a poignant tale that portrays the plight of a family in crisis. Muntasir Badal Choudhury is a reputed teacher in a village close to the border in Bangladesh. He lives with his wife Laila, and their world revolves around their daughter Rupsha who is the apple of their eyes. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’He often stands on the riverbank wrapping his arm around his beloved daughter, narrating to her how unstoppable the flow of the river is. Their life is peaceful until one day they realise the border isn’t just a mere geographical reminder of the partition. The story starts rolling when they come to Kolkata for their ailing daughter’s treatment, and takes a sordid turn with the miseries the couple faces. Shankhachil, a species of kite, is symbolic in the film. The name metaphorically exhibits the freedom of a bird that flies across borders, no nationality to bind it to one land. Only if humans could be kites, their wings spread against the azure sky, strengthening them to soar high above the border wires to distant lands they don’t need to know the names of! Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe film releases simultaneously in India and Bangladesh on Poila Boisakh, the first day of Bengali New Year on April 14. Winning the Best Bengali Film accolade at the 63rd National Awards, a fortnight before the release, would help the film to do better at the box office. The producers, cast and crew are from both the nations, and that’s what strengthens the essence of the film. Shankhachil has been co-produced by Prosenjit Chatterjee and Mou Roychowdhury, and two producers from Bangladesh are Habibur Rahman Khan and Faridur Reja Sagar. Shankhachil is Ghose’s third Indo-Bangladesh venture. The film stars Prosenjit Chatterjee in the lead role with Bangladeshi actor Kusum Sikder playing the character of his wife, and child artist Shajbati as their daughter. The cast includes Dipankar Dey, Mamunur Rashid, Prabir Mitra, Nakul Vaid, Rosey Siddiqui, Ushasie Chakraborty and Arindam Sil in pivotal roles. Priyanshu Chatterjee has made a special appearance. Music comprises of songs of the greatest poets of all times – Rabindranath Tagore, Jibanananda Das, Mukunda Das, Kazi Nazrul Islam and Rajanikanta Sen. Talented singers of the Bengali film industry and the folk-singers of Gorbahanga have lent their voices to infuse life into the lyrics. The music has been carefully chosen, and is bound to boundlessly engulf the audience in nostalgia. Prosenjit ChatterjeeAfter ruling the Bengali film industry for over three decades, superstar Prosenjit Chatterjee has now settled for experimental films and likes to reinvent himself as an actor with every failure. Prosenjit has acted in more than 300 Bengali feature films as the lead for the past 30 years. As Chairman and Managing Director of nideas, he has successfully produced a couple of superhit mega serials in Bengali channels. Shankhachil produced by him has bagged the National Award for Best Bengali Film this year.Mou RoychowdhuryMou Roychowdhury is undoubtedly a new age ardent film producer who believes in aesthetic and meaningful films that would cut an edge in the arena of movie industry. Mou Roychowdhury’s production hallmark has always been the depiction of real life characters through the form of healthy entertainment. She has been extremely instrumental in transforming V3G Films in 2004. A few movies produced by her include Shankhachil, Shesh Boley Kichu Nei and Gorosthane Sabdhan.Habibur Rahman KhanIn 1972 he produced his first film named Titash Ekti Nodir Nam directed by renowned Indian director Ritwik Ghatak. In 1985 he produced his first India-Bangladesh co-production film named Birodh directed by Promod Chakrabarty, a film director from Mumbai. In 1991 he produced another India-Bangladesh co-production film named Padma Nodir Majhi directed by Goutam Ghose with government of West Bengal. Padma Nodir Majhi received UNESCO award from Cannes Film Festival. Faridur Reza SagarEminent media personality, Faridur Reza Sagar is a thoroughly cultural man. He is industrious and is working relentlessly for the development of media in Bangladesh. He has played a great role after the completion of the Reminiscence Book, Ek Jiboney Television, which has covered the history of Bangladesh Television. Sagar has changed the image of the film industry, solely producing at least 100 full length Bengali feature films. In 2015, he clinched the most prestigious and highest civil award of Bangladesh.
Kolkata: Several posters were found lying on the road near Murakata forest in West Midnapore after four suspected Maoists were arrested from Goaltor on Tuesday. Though no suspicious persons were found in the area, police were keeping a strict vigil.Local sources on Thursday morning informed that residents of Murakata in Gurguripal came across posters lying on the road warning TMC leaders to stay out of Jangalmahal. Gurguripal police were called in and the posters were seized. It is important to mention that four persons were arrested from Goaltor who are suspected to be Maoists and several pamphlets and books were also recovered from their possession in which the name of Maoist leader Akash was also found to be mentioned. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeAccording to the sources, West Midnapore police were alerted a few days ago about some anti-national elements trying to create instability in the district after which strict vigil was imposed in and around the area. On Tuesday night, police got a tip-off about some suspicious persons who were seen near Makli in Goaltor. A team immediately surrounded the area and trapped the four who have been identified as Sabyasachi Goswami, Arkadeb Goswami, Sanjib Majumdar and Swapan, alias Tipu Sultan. Police claimed that the four arrested were trying to convince villagers to help them with their anti-national movement. But before they could meet the villagers, they were nabbed.
Sudama Premier League, a cricket tournament to be held in Delhi, is one of the boldest initiatives of encouraging talent from the financially backward classes of the society by Prasar, (People’s Right and Social Research Centre) a non-profit NGO. The promoters have taken the novel way of sourcing players from the BPL and EWS categories for the cricket tournament through screening. These players were trained by luminaries from the cricket world and shaped up in the T20 format to compete with other teams in the tournament. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfKapil Dev, a legendary captain of the Indian Cricket Team, inaugurated the match and spoke with the teams to motivate them and guide their performances to the optimum levels. Atul Wassan, a cricketer of the Indian team and well-known commentator, also graced the occasion to mentor the players. On being asked for an autograph by a player, Kapil Dev said, “I want to see the world requesting your autograph, not mine. That is the motive of this initiative.” Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveIndia has an untapped bouquet of unlimited talent and skills which ‘Prasar’ has endeavored to bring into the public stage. This will motivate these players to overcome the challenges they face due to lack of resources, and this unique format and a bold initiative will also render an exercise in nation building and social engineering.To make the event a grand success, an open and transparent screening was conducted which witnessed a turnover of 750 youths in the age group of 16 years to 23 years from East, West, North and South Delhi regions. The trials that followed for a final selection yielded 300 young and talented boys who have undergone mentorship and guidance under Atul Wassan, Sanjeev Sharma, K. Hariharan and have also been given uniforms, cricket kits, and other amenities during the training period for free. The trained boys will now play in the cricket tournament being held in batches from February 14 to March 11, 2018. The opening ceremony was thrown open with stalwarts from the sport, speaking and motivating the young team members. This was followed with stellar performances by groups showcasing talent on the field providing wholesome entertainment to the audience. The winners in the tournament will then be sent to an international cricket academy for further training and the runners-up will be sent to cricket training academies all over India for special training. The entire training will be free of cost for the winners and the runners-up.Sudama Premier League is a lifetime opportunity to dream big and see these dreams take the form of reality.
Kolkata: The CBI told the Calcutta HC on Friday that the charge-sheet in the Narada sting tapes case will be submitted in a month if necessary procedures are completed. Additional Solicitor General Kaushik Chanda told the court of Justice Joymalyo Bagchi that the agency was close to “stitching up” the case and will submit chargesheet in about a month if sanctions from authorities are received since the matter involves MPs and MLAs. Chanda said this during the hearing of a petition by TMC MP Aparupa Poddar.
Beauty pageants may lure your mind if you want a career as a model, but beware against fraudulent organisers by watching out for its affiliations, social media presence and do thorough referral checks, suggest experts. The following things should be kept im mind before participating in a beauty contest:The parent company and the brand nameReal – online and offline testimonials Referral checks from the previous winners Life after the win Also Read – Add new books to your shelfSponsors on board to gauge legitimacy Background checks Media plan Legal: A registered company name. Fake beauty pageants rarely have a legally registered name. Check if the company is registered under the name displayed.Registered brand/title name and logos: A good, committed and strong beauty pageant would not only be registered, it would have further legal validations like registered trademarks of their brand/title name and logos. So you need to check for both. The title name and the Logo both must be registered or atleast one. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveCheck affiliations: Check for the affiliations from reputed organisations. If a beauty pageant has affiliations or association with known players, it is most likely authentic.Visit office: If possible, make a visit to the registered office address as mentioned on website or you can get it through some research. Ask for an appointment. You also have the right to ask the pageant authority to produce the registration and other statuary documents. Judge yourself seeing the staff working in office and the work place Associations: One of the most definite signs of authenticity for a beauty pageant is to have associations with reputed, well known brands and personalities. Start with checking the name of the brand ambassador, brands it is associated with, sponsors,No additional charges: Is there a beauty pageant constantly asking you for paying additional charges? A good sign of an authentic beauty pageant is to have no hidden charges. Apart from the application fees, most fake beauty pageants would keep asking you to pay more by asking for additional charges like grooming fee, consultation fee, make-up charges, training charges, and more. A good beauty pageant would have a transparent payment process and you would not be asked for sudden and unexpected payments.Check website and landline numbers: Check the company’s legitimate land line phone numbers and address. Do make a call. The address mentioned on the website should be the same as the address the company is registered with. A fake organisation would have vague details about these things. Always look for website’s policy page and terms and conditions.Social media and online presence: Social media is a very important aspect for any beauty pageant. Check the social media pages and see what people are saying about the pageant.’
Pint-sized coins, with niggardly transactional value, may now be falling out of circulation but in olden times, these were not only a legal tender but also an instrument for kings across the world to assert their power, establish the sweep of their kingdoms, and advertise their faith and legitimacy.Some of these coins of exquisite craftsmanship are currently on display as part of a landmark international exhibition, ‘India and the World: A History in Nine stories’, at National Museum here. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfBesides coins, the exhibition also displays some iconic currency notes which reveal loads of information on nation-building, statecraft, and politics of the time. The nine-gallery exhibition, with one section devoted to coinage, has been jointly mounted by National Museum, New Delhi; the British Museum, London; Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (CSMVS), Mumbai; and some 20 private collections. On display are 104 extraordinary works of art from the Indian subcontinent in dialogue with 124 exquisite pieces from the British Museum. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveOverall, the exhibition showcases 31 historic coins and 16 currency notes, and a number of them, lent by the British Museum, are on display for the first time in India. National Museum Director General Dr. B R Mani said the coins and currencies on display are truly historic. “Traditionally, coins are merely viewed as representations of trade and commerce. The exhibition offers the visitors an opportunity to view these coins and banknotes through a political prism though these were also a potent visual language of faiths of kings. With exhibitions like this, museums can rekindle the interest of the current generation in coins and numismatics,” he added. The nearly two-month-long exhibition, which began on May 5, will conclude on June 30.
Besides improving your physical and mental health, feeling younger can also slow down the rate of brain ageing, finds a study.The findings showed that elderly people who feel younger than their age show fewer signs of brain ageing, compared with those who feel their age or older than their age. “We tend to think of ageing as a fixed process, where our bodies and minds change steadily. However, the passing years affect everyone differently. How old we feel, which is called our subjective age, also varies between people–with many feeling older or younger than their actual age,” said Jeanyung Chey of Seoul National University in South Korea. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfFor the study, published in the journal Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, the team included a small number of participants aged 59-84 years, and performed MRI brain scans to look at grey matter volumes in various brain regions. The results showed that people who felt younger than their age were more likely to score higher on a memory test, considered their health to be better and were less likely to report depressive symptoms. They also showed increased grey matter volume in key brain regions. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsive”We found that people who feel younger have the structural characteristics of a younger brain,” Chey said. “Importantly, this difference remains robust even when other possible factors, including personality, subjective health, depressive symptoms, or cognitive functions, are accounted for.”The researchers hypothesised that those who feel older may be able to sense the ageing process in their brain, as their loss of grey matter may make cognitive tasks more challenging.One possibility is that those who feel younger are more likely to lead a more physically and mentally active life which could cause improvements in brain health. However, for those who feel older, the opposite could be true.The study suggests that elderly people who feel older than their age should consider caring for their brain health.
Kolkata: The authorities of Girijasundari Co Educational High School in Malda have revoked the order to hold separate classes for the boys and girls students.The decision was taken after some boys were found passing lewd remarks on their classmates. The School Education department held a meeting on getting a report from the school and asked the authorities to revoke the order immediately. The assistant head master of the school had said on Tuesday the school authorities were forced to hold separate classes for boys and girls as some boy were found to pass lewd remarks on their classmates. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataIt was decided that the boys will attend the school on three days and the girls on the remaining three days. The decision received severe criticism from educationists. Noted scholar Nrisingha Prasad Bhaduri said the decision taken by the authorities of Girijasundari Co Educational High School is absurd and should be scrapped immediately. He said the school authorities will find it very difficult to complete the syllabus. Moreover, it will not resolve the problem. Instead the school authorities should call a meeting of the parents to address the problem. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateThe decision had a flutter among a section of teachers who maintained that if this decision is implemented then it will be difficult for them to complete the syllabus. The School Education department has asked the school authorities to revoke the order and restore the old system of holding the classes for the boys and girls together. The department asked the school authorities to sit with the errant students and resolve the problem. If needed the school authorities can talk to their parents also.
The term ‘Limey’ had its heyday during the early 20th century where it was used as a shorthand reference for English emigrants arriving in America, South Africa and Australia. Its roots come from the British navy’s use of lime juice to cure scurvy during the late 19th century.Scurvy has the dubious honor of being one of the oldest recorded nutritional deficiencies in human history.Mostly thought of today as a strictly seafaring issue, it is found throughout history both at sea and on land in places where malnutrition is high and fresh food is in low supply.Representation of patient with scurvy. Photo by Wellcome Collection CC By 4.0The cure for scurvy has a long history of missteps and well-meaning but misguided hypotheses; we understand now that scurvy occurs due to depleted levels of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in the body and that scurvy is prevented by daily doses of ascorbic acid from citrus or other sources.The 16th century was a time of great upheaval and invention; the great empires of the west began to unfold across the globe and with this expansion came greater lengths of time spent at sea, with scurvy being documented as only being cured by citrus fruits.Lime juice for the treatment of scurvy, issued to soldiers on the British Front in Iraq. Photograph, 1914/1918. Photo by Wellcome Collection CC By 4.0There is evidence for the use of citrus fruits and herbs in the treatment of scurvy from many different parts of the globe. The East India Company reportedly used lemon juice almost its entire existence, but it wasn’t until the 18th century that medical physicians in the United Kingdom began to take note.18 Old English insults we need to bring backDr. James Lind (1716-1794) was a Scottish physician who is credited with completing one of the first controlled therapeutic experiments which he did on sailors who were struck with scurvy. Of his twelve subjects, the ones given daily citrus fruits made a full recovery.James Lind, a pioneer in the field of scurvy prevention.More setbacks followed, and it would take another four decades and many deaths at sea — the death tolls from scurvy far outstripping the deaths from combat — before the Royal Navy began to take citrus seriously.As the Encyclopaedia Britannica reports, “When it was finally adopted by the Royal Navy in 1795, scurvy disappeared from the ranks ‘as if by magic’ and it became a daily supplement to all naval fleets.”James Lind, A Treatise on the Scurvy, 1757. Photo by Wellcome Collection CC By 4.0By 1860, much of the world was a colony of another place, and each great power had their own fleet. The admiralty of the British navy oversaw the switch from European lemons to the more expensive West Indian limes because they were being farmed on British plantations and were assumed to be more effective at beating scurvy. It was this decision that gave birth to the term “Limey” and is generally agreed to have been a mistake of ignorance and patriotism.We now know that limes have around 40% less ascorbic acid than lemons and that vitamin C loses its potency over time. The lime juice supplied to the British Navy was often left exposed to fresh air, and when combined with the copper vessels used in the bottling process, it had almost no vitamin C left to speak of by the time it was taken on board.Vitamin C was identified as the main curative factor in scurvy in 1932.Luckily for the British, the time spent travelling at sea had been reduced due to the introduction of steam power, so the mistake went unnoticed until the dawn of polar exploration.Read another story from us: Guinness Brewery Signed a Lease for 9,000 YearsUnluckily for those early polar explorers, the lack of vitamin C in the lime juice lead to a resurgence of scurvy and a new wave of misunderstanding about its causes. It wasn’t until 1932 that vitamin C was categorically identified as the main curative factor in scurvy.These days, science has shown that a diet of fresh food is enough to combat scurvy and the term “Limey” has fallen out of fashion, along with the naval preference for lime juice.
One person’s trash is another person’s archaeological treasure. That’s long been the case, but it’s taken in a new direction by the recent analysis of an Egyptian stripy sock that was found in what was at the time a rubbish dump in Antinooupolis in Roman-era Egypt. British Museum scientists developed a special imaging to help them discover how Egyptians used dyes on a child’s sock, radiocarbon dated to about 300 A.D. Not wanting to destroy the sock with invasive scanning, they “utilized multispectral imaging, which only needs to scan the surface of artifacts to test for pigments.”The researchers believe the sock was made for the left foot of a child, showing separation between the big toe and four other toes. It used different colors of wool yarn.Photo by Plos OneMany Egyptian socks found have a similar style: made of wool, bright color, with a section between the first two digits in order to wear with sandals.According to the Smithsonian, the sock was “Fished out of a landfill during the 1913-1914 excavation of the Egyptian city of Antinooupolis led by English papyrologist John de Monins Johnson on behalf the Egypt Exploration Fund.”No one analyzed the sock until recently.Socks have existed since the Stone Age, but the ancient Egyptians are thought to be responsible for the first knitted socks.Photo by Plos OneThe recovered child’s sock was described in the journal PLOS One: “Each toe is made separately from dark green wool (10 rows). The two toes are then joined and worked in bands of the following colours: orange (4 rows), purple (4 rows), bluish-green (4 rows), dark red (6 rows), green (2 rows).”“A welt across the instep marks where the loops are worked in the round. The top edge is continuous and curls over; a loose thread of red wool forms part of a tie or tassel at the center front.”The sock was one of four ancient textiles examined, each selected from the British Museum “for their historical/archaeological importance.” Besides the stripy sock were fragments of textiles from Wadi Sarga. These objects are all held at the museum’s Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan.The earliest known surviving pair of socks, created by naalbinding. Dating from 300 AD to 500 AD, these were excavated from Oxyrhynchus on the Nile in Egypt. The split toes were designed for use with sandals. On display in the Victoria and Albert museum, reference 2085&A-1900. Photo by David Jackson CC BY-SA 2.0 ukDr. Joanne Dyer, a scientist in the museum’s department of scientific research who developed the approach, told The Guardian: “It was exciting to find that the different coloured stripes found on the child’s sock were created using a combination of just three natural dyes.”The imaging process is a cheaper, less time-consuming, and less destructive way of studying ancient textiles, she explained in the interview. “Previously, you would have to take a small piece of the material, from different areas.And this sock is from 300 AD. It’s tiny, it’s fragile, and you would have to physically destroy part of this object. Whereas with both the [multispectral] imaging, and other techniques, you have a very good preliminary indication of what these could be.”12th century cotton sock, found in Egypt.The 3rd century AD was a time of tumultuous change in Egypt. Roman influence had peaked.Ongoing economic change was seen in the growth of agriculture and the increasing concentration of wealth and culture in cities, not only Alexandria but also Antinoopolis in the Nile valley.Christianity was spreading, in an interesting form. “Christian hermits in the Egyptian desert began a new style of communal living, later known as monasticism,” according to the Met Museum.Read another story from us: Mt Vesuvius Explosion in 79 AD: Exploding Skulls and Boiling Blood“The earliest monastic communities are made up of hermits who spend most of their time in solitude. Communities of monks who live and work together are formed early in the 4th century. Pachomius writes the first rules for monastic life in about 321 A.D.”Whether the first monks wore stripy socks, though, is unrecorded.
History books are not always right, but it’s a shock to many familiar with the destruction of the Roman city of Pompeii that the commonly accepted date of Mount Vesuvius’s volcanic eruption is most likely off by two months. An inscription has been uncovered during new excavations that dates it to mid-October in 79 AD, not August 23rd.Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 1880 at night. Lithograph, published in 1883.Culture Minister Alberto Bonisoli made the announcement on October 15, 2018 in Pompeii, and declared it “an extraordinary discovery.” He said the discovery was important for science, history, and art — and for highlighting Italian expertise.A charcoal inscription made in a house being renovated in ancient times apparently re-dated the eruption of Mount Vesuvius.Statue of Pliny the Elder on the facade of Cathedral of S. Maria Maggiore in Como. Photo by Wolfgang Sauber CC BY-SA 3.0Historians used ancient writings that purported to share first-hand accounts of the volcano to come up with the original date.The writings came from Pliny the Younger, a lawyer and author who wrote about the death of his more famous uncle, Pliny the Elder.Roman painting from Pompeii, early 1st century AD, most likely depicting Cleopatra VII, wearing her royal diadem, consuming poison in an act of suicide, while Caesarion, also wearing a royal diadem, stands behind her.“On the 24th of August, about one in the afternoon, my mother desired him to observe a cloud…” he wrote in a letter to Tacitus, a Roman historian, about the events.According to the BBC, Pliny the Elder “was then a fleet commander at Misenum – modern day Miseno – across the bay from Pompeii. He took a ship to stage a rescue for those in danger from the volcano.” The older man did not return.Detail of Alexander Mosaic, showing Battle of Issus, from the House of the Faun, Pompeii. Photo by Magrippa cc by sa 3.0Pliny the Younger wrote in his letter, “I have faithfully related to you what I was either an eye-witness of myself or received immediately after the accident happened, and before there was time to vary the truth.”But now historians aren’t so sure. Perhaps Pliny the Younger’s correspondence was incorrectly translated from Latin, or in some way misunderstood.The theater, restored by Pliny the Younger. Photo by QuartierLatin1968 CC BY-SA 3.0The archaeologists released a statement about the new findings: “In particular, a charcoal inscription, a tangible trace of everyday life, supports the theory that the date of the eruption was October and not August. The inscription appears in a room of the house which was undergoing refurbishment, while the rest of the rooms had already been completed. Work must therefore have been ongoing at the time of the eruption.”They also pointed out that since the scribbling was made “in fragile and evanescent charcoal, which could not have been able to last long, it is highly probable that it can be dated to the October of AD 79, and more precisely to a week prior to the great catastrophe.”Bases for a roman stone hand mill (mola asinaria) of a bakery at Ruins of Pompeii.Interestingly, there had already been a challenge to the August date, based on climate and crops. A team of scientists led by Giuseppe Rolandi, a professor of Earth sciences at the University of Naples, wrote in a paper published in the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research in January 2008 that the wind patterns dispersing volcanic debris only occurred in the autumn.Also crops that were harvested in the autumn months like grapes and pomegranates were available at the time that Vesuvius exploded.Pompeii, Italy.The explosion of Mount Vesuvius is the subject of other, recently revealed research.A new study suggests that Mount Vesuvius’s explosion inflicted horrible deaths on its human victims: the heat was so extreme that victims’ skulls exploded, their blood boiled, and their flesh and brains were replaced with ash.Scientists now say that Mount Vesuvius erupted in Italy with a thermal energy 100,000 times more powerful than the atomic bombs of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.Read another story from us: Mt Vesuvius Explosion in 79 AD: Exploding Skulls and Boiling BloodThis conclusion was reached after archaeologists at the Federico II University Hospital in Italy conducted a study of bones recovered from some ash-filled waterfront chambers in Herculaneum, a city close to the volcano, and discovered a strange red and black mineral residue on the bones, including inside skulls, and permeating the ash around and inside the skeletons.
Bikinis and shorts are quite distinguishable today as the swimsuits intended for female and male users, respectively. However, during the “Roaring Twenties”, it was very hard to tell the two apart. The design was kind of unisex, with both men and women wearing full-body swimsuits, as moral norms were stricter than today. While it might seem odd from a modern perspective, swimsuits have come a long way from bathing gowns of the 18th and 19th century, which made sure that not a single segment of a lady’s skin was visible to the observer. To be fair, the gowns also had another function ― to keep the lady safe from sunburns, but this too was considered part of the norm, as tanned skin wasn’t really desirable among aristocrats of the time.11 women and a little girl lined up for bathing beauty contest, USABeatrice Kyle next to a fire engine eating a pickle, 1924Bill Norton the bathing beach policeman measuring distance between knee and bathing suit on woman, Washington, D.C.High diver Beatrice Kyle sitting on a fire engine wheel between acts at the Society Circus at Fort Myer, Va. for the benefit of the Army Relief Fund; Apr. 25, 1924Ernest and Pauline Hemingway, San Sebastian, circa September 1927.Women dancing on beach, Toronto, Canada1920s swimsuit postcard .The reason behind the designs that seem so impractical today, was that going to the beach wasn’t mostly about swimming, as much as it was about enjoying the fresh air and socializing.Therefore, the swimsuits were made of wool ― a material that would keep you warm but became very heavy once wet. With that in mind, the change actually came when swimming became a popular pastime among men and women alike. Soon the material became lighter and more suitable for water.Featuring a simple design, most women and men wore their one-piece swimsuits, which covered their torso, leaving their legs and arms exposed. The main difference was that while men’s models featured shorts, the women’s included a dress which covered the underwear.Bathing Suit 1920s.Bathing Beach, 1920While men stuck with a simple design, a number of accessories were included for ladies, such as a swimming cap, and beach footwear.As times changed, so did the bathing suits. By the mid-1920s, Vogue had famously proclaimed that:… the newest thing for the sea is a jersey bathing suit as near a maillot as the unwritten law will permit.Argentine swimmer Alberto Zorrilla in 1925.1920s swimsuitViola Swinnerton & Anna NeibelBeach PhotoRudolph Valentino with Aleta Farnum and Gertrude Selby. Motion Picture, January 1921Bathing models in a museum, 1920. Photo by Alraunenstern – CC BY SA 4.0Beach 1920Woman on a beach in Bermuda with seaweed, 1929Human tower on the sands at South Stradbroke Island, 1922But it wasn’t only the unwritten law that dictated the fashion ― at the time, beaches were patrolled by the so-called “swimsuit police” whose task was to measure the length of women’s bathing suits and to determine whether or not were they dressed in “improper attire”.Apart from an obligatory 10 dollar fine, some women who chose to argue with the officers were arrested and brought to court.Read another story from us: Flappers: subverting society with their shoesHowever, the public soon turned against this controversial law enforcement, and by the 1930s, the swimsuit police were no more.